A Necessary End: Mad Men’s Final Episodes. What Would Shakespeare Do?

mad-men-silhouetteThe by-now iconic silhouette begins each show.  The head and shoulders of a man, relaxed against a low-profile sofa, his white collar and cuff stark against the vacuum surrounding him.  Don Draper/Dick Whitman sits alone, just as he sat in second one, minute one of show one, season one of Mad Men.

I’ve been amusing myself over the past couple of days staving off my mourning by re-watching some of the classic shows — Carousel, Betty shooting birds, Goodbye Mr. Cooper — and trying to figure out how it all will end.  Expert, on-line theories range from the obvious, Don is the falling man in the credits at the top of the show, to the highly improbable, each cast member dies and turns into an omnivorous zombie.  http://www.wsj.com/articles/how-will-mad-men-end-the-pros-predict-1427395373. Another:  Don dies in an airplane crash and Neve Campbell returns to be the angel of death to whisk him away.  http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/04/14/all-the-signs-that-don-draper-will-die-on-mad-men.html.  Time magazine actually has the audacity to suggest that Mad Men will have a happy ending!  http://time.com/119072/mad-men-don-draper-finale/.  (In 1970?  Didn’t they read 1970?)


I have dusted off my own crystal ball (in the shape of The Riverside Shakespeare) and as an alternate, and mostly amusing theory, propose that Mad Men is a Shakespearean tragedy with all the elements thereof, and occasionally even, some of the actual dialogue and plot lines.  (For example, I rewatched an episode last night named “The Quality of Mercy”!)  In service of this theory, therefore, I give you the following:

There are many elements common among tragedies in general, a tragic hero, a lofty theme, the intervention of fate/supernatural, the commentary of a chorus, humor via word play or the unexpected and spectacle.

Mad Men contains each element.

Don Draper, the Tragic Hero.  An articulate, social authority, someone who is important within his own society and has one weakness or fault — a tragic flaw — that during the course of the drama grows until it overcomes his virtues and leads to his downfall and the destruction of his world.

Theme:  Ambition, Desire.

Intervention of Fates/Supernatural:  The fire that allowed Dick Whitman to become Don Draper.  Don’s meeting with Roger leading to his job with Sterling Cooper.  The LSD in season five and the marijuana in season six and all the way back to season one and two.


:  Mad-Men-Season-7-Promo-Photos-Part-2 (9)These guys.  All of them but Ginsburg have been there from the beginning.  There’s also another chorus, Don’s extra-marital women over the years, commenting on Don himself, in order of their appearance, with thanks to Vulture.com:  Midge, Rachel Menken, Bobbie Barrett, Joy in Palm Springs, Shelly a flight attendant, Sally’s teacher Suzanne Farrell, post-separation Bethany Van Nuys, sex worker Candace, Dr. Faye Miller, post-Clio diner waitress, Sylvia Rosen, Megan’s Cali friend Amy.  http://www.vulture.com/2015/03/women-of-don-draper.html.  This list does not include the woman who raised him, the woman who gave him the Hershey’s bar in the whorehouse, Anna Draper or her niece Stephanie.  Or Joan Harris.

Humor:  Check.  Roger Sterling’s famous for it.

Spectacle.  As the most recent example, Bert Cooper’s swan song and dance.  Also the My Old Kentucky Home episode, and the tractor episode.

sally and donIf Don is the tragic hero — I was originally thinking Hamlet, but that really doesn’t work.  Othello maybe?  MacBeth?  Or a mixture of all of them.  You know who Don most reminds me of is Oberon, who is not a tragic hero because he is in a comedy.  But Oberon is a king, he has lots of women trouble and lots of women.  He has an assistant who likes to make trouble.  Oberon is definitely a creative and emotional type.  He actually flooded the earth out of anger with his woman, Titania, when she got angry with him for his peccadilloes all the while blaming it on her.  Very Don.

Moving on to cast the rest.  Having gone back to season one, it seems to me the primary trio of the show are Don, Peggy and Pete.  Now, I can’t stand Pete.  But as much as I hate to admit it, this show seems to be as much about Pete’s journey as anyone else’s.  I’m going to save Peggy till the end.

Pete Campbell — the archetype of the malign influence, who causes trouble out of hatred, jealousy or temper.  Iago from images-4Othello, Tybalt of Romeo & Juliet.  Says Iago:  “We cannot all be masters, not all masters cannot be truly follow’d.”  Pete may appear to follow Don’s lead, but only for a time.

Betty — It seems to me Betty is so Ophelia, driven mad by her love for Don.  And Ophelia’s father died, just as Betty’s did.

tumblr_lsrsnuhljj1qaj4pxo1_500“She speaks much of her father; says she hears There’s tricks i’ the world; and hems, and beats her heart; Spurns enviously at straws; speaks things in doubt, That carry but half sense.

Roger Sterling – At first, I was considering Roger as Polonius in Hamlet.  Full of trite platitudes.  But that’s not right.  Roger is deeper than his platitudes. Nor is he simply Puckish, though full of him. I think he is Mercutio, the one friend of Romeo’s with ties to the Capulet house in R&J.  Mercutio has the invitation to the Capulet ball that allows Romeo entry.  He is witty, with a wicked sense of humor and can be moody and tempermental.

Freddy Rumson – Freddy started Mad Men as a creative who lost his job due to his drinking.  Over the course of several seasons, Freddy got sober and in the beginning of Season 7, it was Freddy who Don turned to to advance Don’s own pitches under cover to the firm.  In King Lear, the Fool is the only one allowed to criticize the King or to speak frankly to him, all the while appearing as a fool.  Freddy is just such a wise fool to Don.

Joan  – I love Joan so much.  But Shakespeare apparently didn’t share the appreciation.  Very frequently, the Bard would write a powerful woman as a malign figure, someone to fear. In tragedies, she always dies, (Cleopatra, Lady MacBeth) Joan Harrisand in comedies she will usually come under the influence of a male character in some way (Titania). Within the first ten lines of the Antony and Cleopatra, the men define Cleopatra as a lustful “gipsy,” a description that is repeated, a “wrangling queen” (I.i.50), a “slave” (I.iv.19), an “Egyptian dish” (II.vi.123), and a “whore” (III.vi.67); she is called “Salt Cleopatra” (II.i.21) and an enchantress who has made Antony “the noble ruin of her magic” (III.x.18).

In the Season Five shocker episode titled “The Other Woman,” Pete Campbell even calls Joan “Cleopatra,” after she agrees to trade her body for a night so that the firm can get the Jaguar account, and she can get a partnership.  At the end of the first half of Season Seven, Joan had just received a marriage proposal from none other than Bob Benson, to be carried off to Detroit, as his “captive wife,” to charm the natives.

Peggy Olson – The Merchant of Venice is one of Shakespeare’s more perplexing plays.  It’s labeled a comedy, yet it has disturbing overtones of tragedy.  And it’s heroine, Portia, spends much of the play dressed in drag and advocating on behalf of her beloved while appearing to be a man.  In Season Six of Mad Men, “The Quality of Mercy” episode had Peggy finally equalling Don in creative ability, and then confronting him, mano a mano, in a dramatic conclusion.  The title of the episode derives from Portia’s most famous monologue in The Merchant of Venice:

The quality of mercy is not strained.Millais_-_Portia
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Upon the place beneath. It is twice blessed:
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes.
‘Tis mightiest in the mightiest. It becomes
The thronèd monarch better than his crown.
His scepter shows the force of temporal power,
The attribute to awe and majesty
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings,
But mercy is above this sceptered sway.
It is enthronèd in the hearts of kings.
It is an attribute to God himself.
And earthly power doth then show likest God’s
When mercy seasons justice.

Peggy created her masterpiece St. Joseph aspirin ad, all the while flirting outrageously and openly with the very married Ted.  During the presentation with the client, Don put them on the spot with a masterful use of silence and inference, saying nothing to the client, yet implying everything to Ted and Peggy.  Immediately after, Peggy came into Don’s office on a tear, telling him, “I know what you did.”  As she swept out the door, she said, “You are a monster.”

Sally – It is tempting to cast Sally as Cordelia, and I suppose we must.  The beloved daughter.  And yet, Sally is so very . . . un-Cordelia-like to me.

What Happens to Them

Iago is taken into custody and exposed but his sentence is left unpronounced and Iago himself takes a vow of silence, promising never to explain his own actions.  Tybalt, of course, is killed by Romeo, prompting Romeo’s banishment.  Pete Campbell is already in California.  It may be that his end is to stay there, released from his time with Sterling Cooper & Company, silenced forever, whether by his own choice or simply because no one wanted to listed to him anymore.

Ophelia, driven insane by Hamlet’s cruelty and her father’s death, falls from a tree branch into the rushing current below and dies.  Betty Draper is already gone, transformed into Betty Francis by marriage.  No question she was insane, maybe slightly less so now with Henry.  I’d say Betty stays up there in Rye, New York, part of the swimming current of the 1970s.

Mercutio is the character who challenges Tybalt to a duel and it is Mercutio who is the first to be stabbed by Tybalt, under the arm of Romeo, cursing both Romeo and Tybalt as he dies.  “A plague on both your houses,” he says.  Unfortunately, for those wishing for Roger and Joan to lead a happily-ever-after existence, I don’t think that will happen.   In a show of support for Don, Roger will suffer a heart attack.

Cleopatra was out of options when she raised the asp to her neck and ended it all.  I just don’t see Joan reaching that desperation spot.  But she might buy a snakeskin bag.

Portia ends up on top.  Completely in charge of the entire situation.  d3fc4015e79679f0b1b77dca0f2676bd

Tossing her cap, so to speak, in the air and welcoming in the 1970s.  Peggy‘s come a long way too, baby.

Cordelia – At the conclusion of the play, Lear struggles onstage carrying the dead Cordelia in his arms, finally realizing that she who knew him best, loved him best. So much reminds me of the scenes with Don and Sally when you see Sally truly assessing her father for who he is, and giving him a pass on it and loving him anyway.  Perhaps, symbolically, Sally will become a devotee of The Grateful Dead and follow them around the country.

Don — Having established that this is a tragedy, we know that it must end with the tragic fall of the hero and the destruction of his world.  In other words, Don must die.  Sterling Cooper must die.  Betty has found a new world, so has Megan and soon also will the only other survivors Sally, Peggy and Pete.  The world will be destroyed.  And I think, all in all, that is a good thing.   Would anyone be more satisfied to see Don driving off in a convertible with yet another woman, a cigarette hanging out of his mouth, knowing he’s facing fifty, then sixty, paunch, old age, cancer, liver disease, grey hair, becoming the smarmy old guy in the bar that every woman is trying to avoid?  No.  That is NOT a happy ending.

In the end, Mad Men‘s conclusion may best be stated by Puck:

 If we shadows have offended,
 Think but this, and all is mended—
 That you have but slumbered here
 While these visions did appear.
 And this weak and idle theme,
 No more yielding but a dream,
 Gentles, do not reprehend.
 If you pardon, we will mend.
 And, as I am an honest Puck,
 If we have unearnèd luck
 Now to ’scape the serpent’s tongue,
 We will make amends ere long.
 Else the Puck a liar call.
 So good night unto you all.
 Give me your hands if we be friends,
 And Robin shall restore amends.

Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger

Comin thro the rye

Comin thro' the rye, poor body, 
Comin thro' the rye, 
She draigl't a' her petticoatie 
Comin thro' the rye. 

Oh Jenny's a' weet, poor body, 
Jenny's seldom dry, 
She draigl't a' her petticoatie 
Comin thro' the rye. 

Gin a body meet a body 
Comin thro' the rye, 
Gin a body kiss a body
Need a body cry. 

Gin a body meet a body
Comin thro' the glen; 
Gin a body kiss a body 
Need the warld ken! 

Oh Jenny's a' weet, poor body, 
Jenny's seldom dry, 
She draigl't a' her petticoatie 
Comin thro' the rye.

  In 1796, Scottish poet Robert Burns wrote a cheery little ditty about how tough it was for Scottish lovers to woo.  The church elders in the eighteenth-century felt it was their God-given duty to scrutinize courting rituals, so a poor girl like Jenny, dragging her wet and muddy petticoats through a field of rye, would invite community condemnation.

  In 1951, American author J.D. Salinger wrote a dreary novel about a 16-year-old prep school failure who is on the verge of, at the very least, a nervous breakdown.  Holden Caulfield, “the original sullen teenager,” “a symbol of purity and sensitivity,” and “a James Dean movie in print,” trudges through the pages, red hunting cap atop his head, crying, criticizing, fighting, dancing and always running away from the phonies who run the world.

  After running across a child singing Burns’ song crossing a street, Holden’s perpetual gloominess momentarily lifts.  He confesses that if he could create his own job, it would be that of the catcher in the rye.

“Anyway, I keep picturing all these little kids playing some game in this big field of rye and all. Thousands of little kids, and nobody’s around – nobody big, I mean – except me. And I’m standing on the edge of some crazy cliff. What I have to do, I have to catch everybody if they start to go over the cliff – I mean if they’re running and they don’t look where they’re going I have to come out from somewhere and catch them. That’s all I do all day. I’d just be the catcher in the rye and all. I know it’s crazy, but that’s the only thing I’d really like to be.”

Catcher cover

   I’ve re-read The Catcher in the Rye twice in the past five years or so, and just finished re-reading it again.  This time it struck me how evidently self-destructive, depressed and mentally unstable Holden is.  I kept wondering when an adult was going to notice that this kid, with the recently-deceased brother, was about to fall off the deep end.  Phoebe, Holden’s adored younger sister, we sense as readers, has always known something is wrong.  “You don’t like anything that’s happening,” she tells Holden, which causes him to be more depressed.  Phoebe, incidentally, is my favorite character in the book.  I was concerned about Holden, but didn’t really like him.  Perhaps it’s a protective mechanism that Salinger intends us to understand, but his narcissistic tendencies to decry everyone on the outside as a “phony,” or a “moron” or a “show-off” or “conceited” or a “bastard” did not endear him to me.

    When someone finally does notice Holden’s perilous state, it’s his favorite teacher Mr. Antolini who predicts that Holden is heading for “a terrible, terrible fall.”

This fall I think you’re riding for–it’s a special kind of fall, a horrible kind.  The man falling isn’t permitted to hear or feel himself hit bottom.  He just keeps falling and falling.  The whole arrangement’s designed for men who, at some time or other in their lives, were looking for something their own environment couldn’t supply them with.  Or they thought their environment couldn’t supply them with.  So they gave up looking.  They gave up looking before they ever even really got started.

   Now, who does that remind me of?  mad-men-falling-e1330189976453

   I was so struck by the similarity I googled Don Draper and Holden Caulfield and guess what I found out?  Matthew Weiner, Mad Men’s creator told the New York Times that the “FICTIONAL CHARACTER HE MOST IDENTIFIES WITH: Peggy Olson from the show. You know what . . . that’s not true. I’d say Holden Caulfield.”  http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/02/magazine/domains-matthew-weiners-mad-house.html

And more!

Matthew Weiner, the 44-year-old creator of Mad Men, describes the root of his fascination with the post-WWII/pre-Beatles New York City that he never experienced firsthand:

Catcher in the Rye has got to be at the bottom of the entire show. It’s the first book I ever completed reading. I read it many times. I fantasized about living in New York. I loved the WASP-iness of it even though it’s got these Jewish undertones to it.


  He and Don Draper definitely share a life philosophy:  “Don’t ever tell anybody anything.  If you do, you start missing everybody.”

OK, so maybe I like Holden a little more than I realized.

MENU for Book Club

Scotch & Soda is Holden’s favorite drink and his second favorite, which he has to order most of the time because he is not of age, seems to be coca-cola.  I’m not a fan of Scotch but if you want to be genuine, serve Scotch & Soda.  I’ll be opting for wine.

  Holden doesn’t appear to eat much and in the final pages of the book there’s an explanation for it:  “I went to this very cheap-looking restaurant and had doughnuts and coffee. Only, I didn’t eat the doughnuts. I couldn’t swallow them too well. The thing is, if you get very depressed about something, it’s hard as hell to swallow.”  He’s too depressed to eat.  Odds are that your book club won’t be, however, so you could duplicate the menu from Pencey’s Saturday night dinners.  Steak, Mashed Potatoes and Brown Betty.

One of my favorite steak recipes comes from Mark Bittman.

  • 1. Heat the oven to 500 degrees (550 if possible), and set a rack in the lowest position, unless skillet can be placed directly on oven floor. Place a cast-iron skillet large enough to hold the steaks without crowding over high heat, and heat until smoking. Sprinkle surface of pan with coarse salt, and put the steaks in. Smoke will billow up; immediately transfer skillet to oven.
  • 2. Roast steaks, turning once, about 4 minutes a side for medium rare, or until browned and cooked to preferred doneness. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and let rest 3 to 5 minutes. Slice steaks or cut each into two pieces, and serve.

Serve with mashed potatoes.

Brown Betty:  I didn’t know what “Brown Betty” was.  We call it an apple crisp.  So here’s my version.  Serve with Breyer’s vanilla ice cream and a bit of caramel sauce.

4 cups thinly sliced apples
1/4 cup lemon juice
1/4 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 cup oatmeal
1/2 cup white sugar
1/2 cup brown sug
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1 pinch salt
1/2 cup butter
Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Lightly grease a 9 inch pie plate.
Mound sliced apples in the pie plate. Sprinkle with juice.
In a medium bowl, mix the flour, oatmeal, sugars, cinnamon, nutmeg, and salt. Cut in butter until the mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Scatter over the apples.
Bake in preheated oven for 45 minutes. Serve warm.



Holden is out on the town in NYC in 1950ish.  He is jitterbugging to big band swing music at the Lavender Room.  At Ernie’s Nightclub in the Village, Ernie is playing the piano.

I’d suggest downloading an Art Tatum album from iTunes.  The Complete Jazz Chronicle Solo Sessions includes his version of “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes,” the song playing at the carousel when Holden comes to some level of peace about going home with Phoebe.

MOVIE:  Catcher in the Rye has never been adapted to film version because Salinger claimed it was “unfilmable.”  John Cusack (my dream Holden) is quoted as saying his only regret in turning 21 was that he was too old to play Holden.  I’m not up enough to be able to cast most of the teens, but I do have a recommendation for Holden and some of the adults.

Holden’s dad:  Jon Hamm

Holden’s mom:  Cate Blanchett

Mr. Antolini:  Peter Saarsgard

Old Sally:  Kiernan Shipka

Holden:  Freddie Highmore

carousel horse